The European colonies of the Americas adopted the change when their mother countries did.In Alaska, the change took place after the United States purchased Alaska from Russia.This article is about the 18th-century changes in calendar conventions used by Great Britain and its colonies, together with a brief explanation of usage of the term in other contexts. S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written.For a more general discussion of the equivalent transitions in other countries, see Adoption of the Gregorian calendar. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first was to change the start of the year from Lady Day (25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar in favour of the Gregorian calendar.The Gregorian calendar reform also dealt with the accumulated difference between these figures, between the years 3 (1752 in the British Empire), by skipping 10 dates (11 in the case of Great Britain, including her colonies and Ireland) to restore the date of the vernal equinox to approximately March 21, the approximate date it occurred at the time of the First Council of Nicea in 325. Instructions: Click on an episode and select "open" if prompted. If it doesn't or if you receive an error message, download the free Real Player software and then come back here and try again.To reduce misunderstandings about the date, it was normal in parish registers to place a new year heading after 24 March (for example "1661") and another heading at the end of the following December, "1661/62", a form of dual dating to indicate that in the following few weeks the year was 1661 Old Style but 1662 New Style.Some more modern sources, often more academic ones, also use the "1661/62" style for the period between 1 January and 25 March for years before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in England. and the British Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, Ireland, Great Britain and the British Empire (including much of what is now the eastern part of the United States) adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1752, by which time it was necessary to correct by 11 days.
For this reason, letters concerning diplomacy and international trade sometimes bore both Julian and Gregorian dates to prevent confusion: for example, Sir William Boswell writing to Sir John Coke from The Hague dated a letter "12/22 Dec. In his biography of Dr John Dee, The Queen's Conjurer, Benjamin Woolley surmises that because Dee fought unsuccessfully for England to embrace the 1583/84 date set for the change, "England remained outside the Gregorian system for a further 170 years, communications during that period customarily carrying two dates".Usually, the mapping of new dates onto old dates with a start of year adjustment works well with little confusion for events which happened before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar.For example, the Battle of Agincourt is universally known to have been fought on 25 October 1415, which is Saint Crispin's Day.Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates.Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries.Wednesday, 2 September 1752, was followed by Thursday, 14 September 1752.Claims that rioters demanded "Give us our eleven days" grew out of a misinterpretation of a painting by William Hogarth.This change was implemented subsequently in Protestant and Orthodox countries, usually at much later dates.In England and Wales, Ireland, and the British colonies, the change to the start of the year and the changeover from the Julian calendar occurred in 1752 under the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750. designation is particularly relevant for dates which fall between the start of the "historical year" (1 January) and the official start date, where different.But for the period between the first introduction of the Gregorian calendar on 15 October 1582 and its introduction in Britain on 14 September 1752, there can be considerable confusion between events in continental western Europe and in British domains.Events in continental western Europe are usually reported in English language histories as happening under the Gregorian calendar.For example, William III of England arrived at Brixham in England on 5 November (Julian calendar), after setting sail from the Netherlands on 11 November (Gregorian calendar), in 1688.The Battle of the Boyne in Ireland took place a few months later on 1 July 1690 (Julian calendar).Many British people continued to celebrate their holidays "Old Style" well into the 19th century, a practice that according to the author Karen Bellenir reveals a deep emotional resistance to calendar reform. It is common in English language publications to use the familiar Old Style and/or New Style terms when discussing events and personalities in other countries, especially with reference to the Russian Empire and the very-early Russian Soviet.