It is generally a raised area above the rest of the city where the most important sacred and secular buildings are brought together.The buildings on the Athenian Acropolis were important for trade and worship.Alloy - A substance made by the mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal.Alloys are often stronger and more durable than pure metals.Bronze is an alloy of copper and either zinc or tin.Alluvial Deposit - Soil deposited by running water, such as streams, rivers, and flood waters.
Antiquarian - A term generally indicating a pre-20th-century collector of ancient artifacts before the development of scientific archaeology and the establishment of standards for excavating and preserving finds. This material may later be used to refill test pits, an action referred to as "back filling." Balk - A side wall of an excavated unit (square) or a partition of earth left standing between adjoining excavation units.Aristocracy - A governing body of upper class citizens or the system of government in which aristocrats (upper class citizens) have controlling power. Bulbar depression - A depression left on the core (where a flake's bulb of percussion was attached) when a blade or flake was struck off. Ceramics - Objects, often pottery, made of fired or baked clay.In an aristocracy people are generally born into distinct social classes and there is little or no upward mobility. Chert - A fine-grained sedimentary rock, similar to flint, that is white, pinkish, brown, gray, or blue-gray in color.Physical anthropologists study human skeletons and other bodily remains.Biological anthropologists deal primarily with the evolution of humans and primates. "Present" is academically defined as the year 1950 (the year when this term was invented).Aerial Photography - The various techniques of taking photographs of natural or cultural features from the air, using balloons, airplanes, satellites, and other sources, in order to study the features in their entirety from a top-down (bird's eye) view.Aerial Reconnaissance - The technique of searching for sites and features, both cultural and natural, from the air, often using aerial photography or the human eye.It was characterized by large bifaces, particularly hand axes.This tool-making technology was a more complex way of making stone tools than the earlier Oldowan technology.This is a good way to search for patterns or changes in soil color or plant density (possible indicators of buried features) that may not be visible to a person walking on the ground.Agora - An open-air place of congregation in an ancient Greek city, generally the public square or marketplace, that served as a political, civic, religious, and commercial center.In the New World the term refers to a period when permanent settlements were becoming more common and human groups were making the transition from hunting-and-gathering to agriculture. Bronze Age - A prehistoric period in the Old World, dating roughly from 3000-1000 B. E, defined by the widespread use of bronze as a material for tools, weapons, and ornaments. The lids were usually modeled to represent animal-headed gods or the heads of important people.In evolutionary biology, an "archaic" Homo sapien is a hominin (or hominid) who was slightly more primitive than modern humans (Homo sapiens). Bulb of percussion - A small, rounded protrusion on a flake resulting from the blow that separated the flake from its core or another flake. Carbon dating - see Radiocarbon Dating Cardinal Directions - Collective term for the four primary directions: North, South, East, West.In some instances, however, running water carries away nutrients from exposed soils and creates areas unsuitable for agriculture.